In the form of verbal communication, the translation is oral and written. Interpreting has such types as consecutive interpreting, simultaneous interpreting and whisper interpreting (chuchotage). In Azerbaijani, the interpreter was usually called ‘Dilmandj’.
The interpreting has an ancient history. The roots of written translation go to ancient Egypt, where the translation emerged for the first time. In history, the interpreting has played an important role in the discovery and occupation of new lands, countries, nations and people. For example, the campaign of Alexander the Great to the East, the occupation of Central and South America by Spaniards, the occupation of large territories from India to the Balkans by Turks, the Arab conquest. All of the above conquerors used the services of interpreters. Currently, interest in this area is great. Such areas as business interpreting, simultaneous interpreting, court interpreting, interpreting in communities, and sign language interpreting are highly developed.
In the consecutive interpreting, interpreters first listen to a certain fragment of the speaker’s speech, and when the latter stops speaking, translate the fragment into the other language. In the consecutive interpreting, the speaker, as usual, pauses every 1–5 or 15 minutes (at the end of each paragraph or utterance), allowing for the translation of the text. In the history of translation there have been cases when a speaker continuously spoke for an hour, and then the word was given to the interpreter to translate the speech. Due to the excessive memory overload, some interpreters ask the speaker to pause. One of the most important conditions for a consecutive interpreter is the ability to take notes, as it is difficult to remember a whole paragraph without causing damage to the details. Other characteristics of a consecutive interpreter are the presence of short-term memory, and good presentation and persuasion skills. A person can memorize several words in one minute, but the question is not the consecutive memorization of several words. Continuously listening to any speech, the memory of a person is overloaded. If the main points of a speech fragment are recorded as notes and subsequently translated by looking through them, the interpreter does not get tired, at the same time, the work is done effectively.
Another common form of the simultaneous interpreting is the whisper interpreting. The whisper interpreting is also called ‘chuchotage’ by the French term. This type of interpreting is usually used in cases when there are few foreign representatives who speak the target language of interpreting at events. When translating in a whisper, the interpreter sits next to the foreign representative and whispers in his/her ear so that the translation can only be heard by that person, and no inconveniences for other representatives can arise. When two persons need translation, the interpreter sits in a row behind them so that from close range s/he can whisper to the right ear of the first guest and the left ear of the second guest. When more than two persons need interpreting, the interpreting services of two or more interpreters are used. In this case, the interpreting by one translator can be transferred to several persons through a special device. The whisper interpreting is used at business and face-to-face meetings.
Simultaneous interpreting originated during World War I. Until that time, important international meetings and forums were held in French, which was considered the world language. During World War I, some high-ranking US and British officials did not speak French, which made it difficult to negotiate. As a result, they must use the services of interpreters. Especially after the Nuremberg and Tokyo processes, simultaneous interpreting began to be widely used. Currently, this type of interpreting is used not only in international forums, but also on radio and television programs, lectures, and trainings, and during visits of state officials. In simultaneous interpreting, the interpreter sits in the cabin assigned to him/her, listens to the speaker with a headset and simultaneously speaks the translation text into the microphone in front of him/her. And the conference participants in the hall listen to the text of the translation through earpieces. They see the speaker in the hall, but they do not see the interpreter in the cabin.
The simultaneous interpreting has its own laws, which are called the golden laws of interpreting. Interpreters must:
• Ensure communication between the audience of the conference hall and the speaker;
• Use technical equipment as much as possible;
• Make sure that the speaker and audience in the hall hear him/her well;
• Not interpret unheard or poorly heard words;
• Concentrate his/her attention as much as possible;
• Not allot time to individual unknown words and do not distract attention from the main topic;
• Be able to clearly distribute his/her attention, and listen well, and control his/her interpreting;
• Use maximum simple, short sentences;
• Express a certain thought in each sentence;
• Every sentence must be completed; and
• Sentences should sound logical.
Tourists get first impressions of hospitality of the country they visit according to the way they are met. At this stage, tourists find themselves in unfamiliar surroundings and not knowing the language of the country have difficulty in communicating with border and customs officials.
Tourism is a sector in which economic processes dominate. This requires guides to have not only a rich general culture, but also fundamental economic training, as s/he must be able to design a program of traveling along a certain route, a price list of the excursion, and financial statements. Training of guides in foreign language is also a basic requirement, otherwise s/he cannot establish direct contact with foreign tourists. The more languages a guide knows, the more s/he raises the prestige of his/her country as a tourism specialist. For the guide it is very important to know the nationality of foreign tourists, their culture, living conditions, customs and traditions. The quality of services provided to tourists depends on the knowledge and experience of the guide.
INTERPRETING AT TRADE
Trade shows provide communication between companies and customers. Representatives of various countries of the world participate in fairs, as a result of which language barriers bear a considerable risk. If parties did not understand each other, then how they would carry out their business activities?
The interpreting used at trade fairs is different from other types of translation/interpreting. Interpreters in this field, along with a deep knowledge of the original language and the target language, should be sufficiently informed about your products and services. Interpreters at trade fairs should simultaneously provide communication and help in attracting new clients.
If you use our translation services at trade fairs, you will get great choices. You may not worry about the issue of interpreters, because along with common languages, we also provide interpreting services in rarely used languages. At your next trade fairs, use the services of our experienced interpreters specializing in the field of trade fairs, which will allow you to demonstrate to your clients from different countries that they are very valuable to you.